Pelješac is the second largest Croatian promontory( after Istria), located in the south of Croatia in the Dubrovnik- Neretva County. The name Pelješac apartments most probably originates from the name of the Pelisac hill located on top of Orebić, and is of fairly recent date. Throughout history, colorful names have been used, most frequently Ston War( Latin Puncta Stagni, Italian Ponta di Stagno) or the Italian name Sabbioncello.
Pelješac apartments is located in the southern part of Croatia. It's framed by the Neretva Canal, the Maloston Bay, the Mljet Canal and the Pelješka Canal and apartments. It stretches nearly resemblant to the direction of the seacoast, from its junction with the landmass in Mali Ston to the end of Cape Lovište, it's 77 km long. The area of the Pelješac apartment is 348 km2. It's connected to the landmass by the Island of Ston, which is 1450 m wide at its narrowest part. The island is generally flaxen and it's egregious that it was formed by drifts, which shows that Pelješac Apartments was formerly an islet. Pelješac apartments are hilly with lots of karst fields. The material is generally calcareous, i.e. Cretaceous limestone, dolomite and Eocene flysch predominate. The loftiest of all the hills is Sveti Ilija( 961 m), which is also called Snake Hill or Monte Vipera. The peak is located on the triadic border and forms a natural border between the megacity of Orebić and the megacity of Trpanj. The bank of the apartments on Pelješac is about 200 km long.
Apartments Pelješac belongs to the Adriatic type of Mediterranean climate, which is characterized by long, dry and warm summers with bright and calm days. Winter is mild and wet. Air temperatures are fairly high throughout the time, and only in January and February are temperatures below 10 °C. Because of this, it infrequently snows on the Pelješac apartments, and when it does, it infrequently stays at mound below 400 m. The loftiest downfall is recorded during October and March, and the least during July and August. The swells during the south in the Pelješac apartments are the largest and are between1.5 and 4 measures high. Southerly blows frequently in downtime can beget significant damage in littoral areas, causing drifts on roads and damaging them. Bura in downtime brings the coldest rainfall, but substantially clear and nearly always without rush. The average number of sunny hours in Pelješac apartments is over,500 in some places, which indicates a large number of sunny days, which is among the largest in Croatia. The translucency of ocean water varies. In 1963 and 1964, translucency was measured in the Maloston Bay and it was determined that its values were between5.5 m and 11m.
The saltness of the ocean girding the apartments Pelješac is between38.48 ‰ and38.60 ‰( and the southern Adriatic in general) is slightly advanced than the normal of the Adriatic Sea,38.3 ‰.
The factory cover of apartments Pelješca is Mediterranean, rich and different. further than,100 factory species and species have been recorded on it. The exceptionally different foliage is explained by the fairly large area( 355 km2) and the difference in altitude( 1 to 961 m). Pelješac apartments is one of 94 important areas in the Republic of Croatia. Coniferous trees of Aleppo pine( pinus halepensis), pine( pinus pinea), Dalmatian black pine( pinus nigra dalmatica), cypress( cypressus) and maquis are ubiquitous, which covers part of the Pelješac apartments substantially contains the following shops plantain, heather, morel, vetch, and others. There are also timbers of holm oak( querxus ilex), carob and ensign. Karst fields and the pitches of numerous hills have been cultivated and are covered by olive groves and stations, and in some places also southern fruits mango, tangerine, figs, almonds, oranges. Above Orebić grows a cypress timber, the largest of its kind by Croatia. The climate and position have caused a lot of medicinal and sweet sauces to grow on the apartments in Pelješac mint, rosemary, savant, lavender, marjoram.
Ilija hill in the west of the promontory is the only place in the world where the Dalmatian needle( Geranium dalmaticum) grows, and it's one of the many areas where we can find short- toothed savant( salvia brachyodon), sedge( quercus crocifera), Dalmatian black pine( pinus nigradsubsp. dalmatica) and Dr. The hillsides are one of the richest spots of wild orchids in Croatia. A part of the mountain of about half a hectare with neglected meadows and clearings is an area where 3 exposed species of orchids grow.
In every season on the hill we can find a factory in bloom, but the most significant ages are May and June. also the blue lichen( moltkia petraea), thorny bitterness or ocean devil( Chamaecytisus spienscens), heart- shaped headwort( Globularia cordifolia), violet( matthiola tristis var. Italica), argentine teal( argyrolobium zanonii), herbaceous gorse( Dorycnium herbaceum), medicinal savant bloom.( Salvia officinalis) and numerous others.
In addition to the rich foliage, there's also an beast world. The sable( canis aureus dalmaticus) is a specific species, which is wide on the promontory. There's also a large number of wild creatures similar as mouflons, wild boars, rabbits, pheasants and turtles( defended by law), and especially one freshman from Asia the Indian small mongoose( Herpestes javanicus). The mouflon was imported to the Pelješac apartments in 1970 from the Brijuni National Park. The original 2 males and 6 ladies multiplied over time because this area proved to be a suitable niche for them, so within a many times there were heads for firing. In the stalking period from 1977 to 1995, they gave nimrods 94 glories( 58 gold, 22 tableware and 14 citation), which are the stylish results in the world. They can be seen substantially on the steepest pitches of the hills.
Pelješac apartments are crossed by two state roads D414, which connects near Zaton Doli with D8, and on the other side ends in Orebić and D415. County road 6215 connects Orebić with the westernmost agreement- Lovište. Orebić is connected by a machine line with Dubrovnik and with a couple of girding municipalities. Orebić is connected to the city of Korcula by a ferry line. Another ferry line connects Trpanj with Ploče. The line from Prapratno( between Ston and Ponikava) leads to the islet of Mljet. Passenger boats sometimes connect Orebić and Trstenik with Korčula, i.e. Mljet. There are extemporized pads in several places on the promontory. Since 2007, the construction of the Pelješko ground to the apartments has been planned.
Pelješac apartments was inhabited veritably beforehand, there are remains that date back to the youngish Gravestone Age( Neolithic). multitudinous remains were set up in colorful grottoes on the Pelješac apartments( Gudnja on Porac, Spilja on Kopnje, Prinčeva spilja on Zabrada). Immigration of the so- called Protoilira begins the essence age at the Pelješac apartments. Pelješac apartments were latterly inhabited by Illyrians from the Plereja lineage who also left numerous traces of their actuality. A large Illyrian sanctum was set up in a delve near the vill of Nakovane.
Although the ancient Greeks innovated colonies around Korčula and the Neretva delta, there's no substantiation of their presence on the Pelješac apartments. The Greeks, on the other hand, traded apartments with the Illyrians on Pelješac, although it can not be determined that this was of great significance. Beast husbandry was the dependence of the Illyrian frugality on Pelješac apartments, and fortified conflicts were also fought over the area for cattle grazing. The Illyrians erected castles. husbandry was of secondary significance among the Illyrians.
Another Illyrian lineage, the Ardiljerci, came to Pelješac apartments around 370 BC.Kr. under pressure from the Celts from the north, it mixed with the Plereians and established its rule from the Neretva channel to Greece. During the time of the Ardiljers, Illite corsair attacks on Greek trafficker vessels boosted. The Romans came to Pelješac apartments in the alternate century BC.Kr. under the guise of helping the Greeks. After a series of wars( which substantially bypassed the Pelješac apartments), the Romans establish a government that will last until the division of the Roman Empire. also Pelješac apartments came under the rule of Byzantium.
In the early Middle periods, borders were defined by wars, and the right of power of the apartments in Pelješac was claimed by numerous. With the decaying of the Roman Empire, especially its western part, which included the Pelješac apartments, the Slavs began to immigrate to that area, forming their own political conformations called sclavini. The Pelješac apartment fell under Zahumlje, which was a kind of buffer zone between the Kingdom of Croatia, Raška and Dubrovnik. Zahumlje managed to maintain its independence by balancing between the girding forces, and the Pelješac apartment was spared the great desolation of the war. Since the 11th century, Pelješac Apartments and Zahumlje have been ruled by the autocrats of Dukla, Raš, intricate and Hungarian- Croatian autocrats.
In 1326, Dubrovnik formed an alliance with the Kingdom of Bosnia and compactly conquered the Pelješac apartments. In 1331, a war broke out for the throne in Raška, and the Bosnian ban Stjepan II. Kotromanić breaks into Zahumlje and causes great damage to Dubrovnik's property in apartments in Pelješac. The ensuing time, with their tactfulness, the people of Dubrovnik managed to negotiate peace and gain a document by which they bought the Pelješac apartments in 1333 from the Serbian emperor Dušan and the Bosnian ban Stjepan Kotromanić. With the appearance of the Pelješac apartments under the rule of Dubrovnik, the entire population is declared Dubrovnik serfs. Since at that time the Pelješac apartments were separated by land from Dubrovnik, defense and administration had to be organized. Under the Podzvizd hill, the megacity of Ston is being erected, whose walls cover the swab visage in Ston because Dubrovnik didn't have a land connection with the apartments on Pelješac( the area of the Dubrovnik seacoast remained under the control of Emperor Dušan until 1399). The swab visage was the second largest source of income for the Republic after shipping. Feudal husbandry developed, as well as shipbuilding( the Ston magazine was the second largest in the Republic of Dubrovnik) for war purposes, but also for trade. Pelješac apartments entered the status of" kingly" like other corridor of the Republic outside the megacity. The Napoleon was tagged by the Grand Council, and his seat was in Ston. In 1343, the Pelješac apartments were administratively divided into 2 corridor the executive area of Ston and the executive area of Trstenica( moment's Orebić and the girding townlets of Podgorje and Karmen). The ultimate was particularly delicate to serve due to poor communication due to inapproachable terrain. For this reason, in 1465, the government separated the central part of the promontory from Trstenica into a separate captaincy with headquarters in Janjina. Pelješka wines stood out for their quality indeed also, so that in 1333 the authorities banned their import to other corridor of the Republic except the megacity itself, and the coming time they indeed banned farther planting of stations.
Shipbuilding in the Pelješac apartments endured rapid-fire development in the 15th and 16th centuries in Ston. It'll witness its topmost development in Orebić in the alternate half of the 16th century. In the 17th century, Orebić came the main maritime center of the promontory and one of the largest in the Republic.
Since the Republic of Dubrovnik didn't have a significant army, it reckoned on an alliance with the neighboring Ottoman Empire, to which it paid homage. That formal alliance with the Turks gave the girding countries an reason for thievery and pirating in the Republic, which Pelješac apartments were particularly exposed to. still, religion was just an reason anyway, because Pelješac apartments were burgled by the same countries indeed before that alliance.
New century and ultramodern times
Dubrovnik's rule over Pelješac and the apartments lasted until 1808, when France enthralled and also abolished the Republic of Dubrovnik. The French rule was short and didn't leave a mark on the apartments in Pelješac, where feudal relations from the period of the Republic remained. The French erected a couple of roads, some of which are still in use moment. In 1814, Pelješac apartments came part of Austria- Hungary and came part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia. After the First World War, it came part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. First, it was incorporated into the Zeta Banovina, and in 1939 into the Croatian Banovina. During the period of the Independent State of Croatia, it came part of Dubrovnik County, which included a good part of eastern Herzegovina. In SFRY, it's administratively divided between the megacity of Korčula( lower, western part) and the megacity of Dubrovnik( larger eastern part). With the establishment of the independent Republic of Croatia, it becomes part of the Dubrovnik- Neretva County and is divided into four cosmopolises.
Places on Pelješac with apartments
Pelješac is divided into four cosmopolises
Apartments Ston-,605 occupants
Apartments Janjina- 593 occupants
Apartments Trpanj- 871 occupants
Apartments Orebić-,165 occupants
In addition to these four places, the population is located in the following townlets
Boljenovići • Brijesta • Broce • Česvinica • Dančanje • Duba Stonska • Dubrava • Hodilje • Luka • Mali Ston • Metohija • Putniković • Sparagovići • Ston • Tomislavovac • Zabrđe • Zaton Doli • Žuljana- in the megacity of Ston
Drače • Janjina • Osobjava • Popova Luka • Sreser- in the megacity of Janjina
Duba, Donja Vrućica, Gornja Vrućica- in the megacity of Trpanj
Donja Banda • House • Kuna Pelješka • Hunting area • Anvil • Orebić • Oskorušno • Pijavičino • Podgorje • Podobuce • Potomje • Stankovići • Trstenik • Viganj- in the megacity of Orebić
The distance from Lovište in the megacity of Orebić( far west) to Mali Ston is 77 km. According to the population tale from 2001,,234 people live in Pelješac Apartments. The population viscosity is23.7 occupants per forecourt kilometer, which is significantly lower than the public normal(84.6 occupants/ km2).
Still, utmost of moment's agreements weren't innovated on the ocean seacoast, if it's part of the Mediterranean world connected to the ocean. Two factors were decisive for this the centuries-old agrarian base, which turned the population towards the interior, and the long- term exposure to corsair raids. Lovište is the youthful agreement of apartments in Pelješac. It was innovated by the people of Hvar who, between emigrating to America and going to the Pelješac apartments, chose the ultimate. the first settler in Lovište( 1878) was Ante Visković from the Hvar vill of Gdinj.
The demographic history of Pelješac can be divided into three phasespre-transition, transition andpost-transition phase. Thepre-transitional phase lasted until the end of the 18th century. The transition phase lasted a long time from also until the 1970s. In the transition phase, due to the high natural increase, there was a large increase in the number of occupants." The redundant population was forced to emigrate. utmost of them moved to overseas countries Australia, Argentina and the USA. The long transition phase is a consequence of the early morning( considering that the Republic of Dubrovnik was among the most advanced countries of its time) and the late end( given that it was adjoined to Dalmatia, which was at a much lower position. Another significant decline in the number of occupants was recorded in the 1960s and 1970s due to the profitable policy of the Republic of SRH. The policy at that time shifted the centers of profitable development to the external centers, which is why the supplemental corridor Pelješac Apartments was substantially part of the megacity of Dubrovnik, and to a lower extent part of the megacity of Korčula, and in both cases it was on the fringe. Since the 1970s, the only area of Orebić( the so- called Pelješka Riviera with apartments) has seen an increase in the number of occupants.
There are a large number of apartments in the area of Pelješac. utmost of them( over 50) are possessed by BiH citizens. utmost of them were erected in the 1980s after the Olympics in Sarajevo.
The promontory is linguistically divided into two corridor. The Štokavian- Ijekavian language( the so- called Dubrovnik shoptalk) is spoken in the eastern part, which continues to the border with Montenegro. In the west of the Pelješac apartment, Chakavian- Ikavian, i.e. the southern Chakavian shoptalk participated with the islet of Korčula, was traditionally spoken. Due to population emigration and immigration from Zagora and western Herzegovina, it decreasingly loses its Chakavian rudiments and becomes Štokavian- Ikavian like utmost littoral areas of Dalmatia.
Traditional profitable branches on Pelješac are husbandry, fishing and seafaring. Seafaring began to develop at the end of the Middle periods and after a series of disasters that passed in Dubrovnik, similar as an earthquake that killed a large number of the population and destroyed a large part of the line. Of the agrarian branches, olive growing and viticulture are the most prominent. All these branches are moment largely in the shadow of tourism, which began to develop in the 1960s of the 20th century. Tourism started in Viganj, where the first groups of guests( children from BiH and Macedonia) were accepted as early as 1947. Tourism in Pelješac apartments reached its peak in the alternate half of the 1980s and beyond, and was suddenly intruded by the Homeland War. Thepre-war figures of late stays weren't repeated indeed nearly 20 times after the end of the war. Due to tourism and emigration of the population on Pelješac, you can find multitudinous former stations and olive groves grown with timber, maquis and garig or covered by structures. Pelješac apartments is the most important area in Croatia for shellfish husbandry. The most important areas of shellfish husbandry are the seacoast near Brijesta and the Maloston Bay.
Water and water frugality
There's no swash- lake network at Pelješac Apartments. There are a certain number of lower springs on the promontory, and it's only thanks to this that there's no complete dehumidification. That's why the construction of tuns for collecting rainwater was extremely important. The largest rainwater collection point is the field around Potomje. shy water force has long been a limiting factor for development. For this reason, a water force system was erected in the 1960s with water from the Neretva River.